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Sunday, September 21, 2008

Vibration Monitoring

One of the major factors that causes pump failure is vibration, which usually causes seal damage and oil leakage. Vibration in pumps is caused by numerous factors such as cavitations, impeller unbalance, loose bearings, and pipe pulsations. Typically, large-amplitude vibration occurs when the frequency of vibration coincides with that of the natural frequency of the pump system. This results in a catastrophic operating condition that should be avoided. If the natural frequency is close to the upper end of the operating speed range, then the pump system should be stiffened to reduce vibration. On the other hand, if the natural frequency is close to the lower end of the operating range, the unit should be made more flexible. During startup, the pump system may go through its system natural frequency, and vibration can occur. Continuous operation at this operating point should be avoided.

ASME recommends periodic monitoring of all pumps. Pump vibration level should fall within the prescribed limits. The reference vibration level is measured during acceptance testing. This level is specified by the manufacturer. During periodic maintenance, the vibration level should not exceed alert level. If the measured level exceeds the alert level then preventive maintenance should be performed, by diagnosing the cause of vibration and reducing the vibration level prior to continue to operations.

Collection and analysis of vibration signatures is a complex procedure. By looking at a vibration spectrum, one can identify which components of the pump system are responsible for a particular frequency component. Comparison of vibration signatures at periodic intervals reveals if a particular component is deteriorating. The following example illustrates evaluation of the frequency composition of an electric motor gear pump system.

Figure of Frequency range of typical machinery faults.