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Friday, October 3, 2008

Valve

In addition to the throttling control valve, other types of process valves are used to manipulate the process. Valves for On/Off Applications Valves are often required for service that is primarily nonthrottling in nature. Valves in this category, depending on the service requirements, may be of the same design as the types used for throttling control or, as in the case of gate valves, different in design. Valves in this category usually have tight shutoff when they are closed and low pressure drops when they are wide open. The on/off valve can be operated manually, such as by handwheel or lever; or automatically, with pneumatic or electric actuators.

 

Batch Batch process operation is an application requiring on/off valve service. Here the valve is opened and closed to provide reactant, catalyst, or product to and from the batch reactor. Like the throttling control valve, the valve used in this service must be designed to open and close thousands of times. For this reason, valves used in this application are often the same valves used in continuous throttling applications.

 

Ball valves are especially useful in batch operations. The ball valve has a straight-through flow passage that reduces pressure drop in the wide-open state and provides tight shutoff capability when closed. In addition, the segmented ball valve provides for shearing action between the ball and the ball seat that promotes closure in slurry service.

 

Isolation A means for pressure-isolating control valves, pumps, and other piping hardware for installation and maintenance is another common application for an on/off valve. In this application, the valve is required to have tight shutoff so that leakage is stopped when the piping system is under repair. As the need to cycle the valve in this application is far less than that of a throttling control valve, the wear characteristics of the valve are less important. Also, because there are many required in a plant, the isolation valve needs to be reliable, simple in design and simple in operation.

 

The gate valve, is the most widely used valve in this application. The gate valve is composed of a gate-like disc that moves perpendicular to the flow stream. The disc is moved up and down by a threaded screw that is rotated to effect disc movement. Because the disc is large and at right angles to the process pressure, large seat loading for tight shutoff is possible. Wear produced by high seat loading during the movement of the disk prohibits the use of the gate valve for throttling applications.

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