Pump Type Follows:

Monday, January 26, 2009

Pump Therminology

Discharge of a fluid from a vessel by partially or completely displacing its internal volume with a second fluid or by

mechanical means is the principle upon which a great many fluid transport devices operate. Included in this group are reciprocating piston and diaphragm machines, rotary-vane and gear types, fluid piston compressors, acid eggs, and air lifts.

The large variety of displacement-type fluid-transport devices makes it difficult to list characteristics common to each. However, for most types it is correct to state that (1) they are adaptable to high pressure operation, (2) the flow rate through the pump is variable (auxiliary damping systems may be employed to reduce the magnitude of pressure pulsation and flow variation), (3) mechanical considerations limit maximum throughputs, and (4) the devices are capable of efficient performance at extremely low-volume throughput rates.

Centrifugal Force
Centrifugal force is applied by means of the centrifugal pump or compressor. Though the physical appearance of the many types of centrifugal pumps and compressors varies greatly, the basic function of each is the same, i.e., to produce kinetic energy by the action of centrifugal force and then to convert this energy into pressure by efficiently reducing the velocity of the flowing fluid.

In general, centrifugal fluid-transport devices have these characteristics: discharge is relatively free of pulsation; mechanical design lends itself to high throughputs, capacity limitations are rarely a problem; the devices are capable of efficient performance over a wide range of pressures and capacities even at constant-speed operation; discharge pressure is a function of fluid density; and these are relatively small high-speed devices and less costly.

A device which combines the use of centrifugal force with mechanical impulse to produce an increase in pressure is the axial-flow compressor or pump. In this device the fluid travels roughly parallel to the shaft through a series of alternately rotating and stationary radial blades having airfoil cross sections. The fluid is accelerated in the axial direction by mechanical impulses from the rotating blades; concurrently, a positive-pressure gradient in the radial direction is established in each stage by centrifugal force. The net pressure rise per stage results from both effects.

Electromagnetic Force
When the fluid is an electrical conductor, as is the case with molten metals, it is possible to impress an electromagnetic field around the fluid conduit in such a way that a driving force that will cause flow is created. Such pumps have been developed for the handling of heat-transfer liquids, especially for nuclear reactors.

Transfer of Momentum
Deceleration of one fluid (motivating fluid) in order to transfer its momentum to a second fluid (pumped fluid) is a principle commonly used in the handling of corrosive materials, in pumping from inaccessible depths, or for evacuation. Jets and eductors are in this category.

Absence of moving parts and simplicity of construction have frequently justified the use of jets and eductors. However, they are relatively inefficient devices. When air or steam is the motivating fluid, operating costs may be several times the cost of alternative types of fluid-transport equipment. In addition, environmental considerations in today’s chemical plants often inhibit their use.

Mechanical Impulse
The principle of mechanical impulse when applied to fluids is usually combined with one of the other means of imparting motion. As mentioned earlier, this is the case in axial-flow compressors and pumps. The turbine or regenerative-type pump is another device which functions partially by mechanical impulse.

Measurement of Performance
The amount of useful work that any fluid-transport device performs is the product of (1) the mass rate of fluid flow through it and (2) the total pressure differential measured immediately before and after the device, usually expressed in the height of column of fluid equivalent under adiabatic conditions. The first of these quantities is normally referred to as capacity, and the second is known as head.

This quantity is expressed in the following units. In SI units capacity is expressed in cubic meters per hour (m3/h) for both liquids and gases. In U.S. customary units it is expressed in U.S. gallons per minute (gal/min) for liquids and in cubic feet per minute

(ft3/min) for gases. Since all these are volume units, the density or specific gravity must be used for conversion to mass rate of flow. When gases are being handled, capacity must be related to a pressure and a temperature, usually the conditions prevailing at the machine inlet. It is important to note that all heads and other terms in the following equations are expressed in height of column of liquid.