Pump Type Follows:

Thursday, September 11, 2008

Rotary, Screw and Gear Pumps

Rotary Pumps

In rotary pumps the liquid is displaced by rotation of one or more members within a stationary housing. Because internal clearances, although minute, are a necessity in all but a few special types, capacity decreases somewhat with increasing pump differential pressure. Therefore, these pumps are not truly positive displacement pumps. However, for many other reasons they are considered as such. The selection of materials of construction for rotary pumps is critical. The materials must be corrosion-resistant, compatible when one part is running against another, and capable of some abrasion resistance.

Gear Pumps

When two or more impellers are used in a rotary pump casing, the impellers will take the form of toothed-gear wheels as in helical gears, or of lobed cams. In each case, these impellers rotate with extremely small clearance between them and between the surfaces of the impellers and the casing. The two toothed impellers rotate as indicated by the arrows; the suction connection is at the bottom. The pumped liquid flows into the spaces between the impeller teeth as these cavities pass the suction opening. The liquid is then carried around the casing to the discharge opening, where it is forced out of the impeller teeth mesh.

The arrows indicate this flow of liquid.

Rotary pumps are available in two general classes, interior-bearing and exterior-bearing. The interior-bearing type is used for handling liquids of a lubricating nature, and the exterior-bearing type is used with non lubricating liquids. The interior-bearing pump is lubricated by the liquid being pumped, and the exterior-bearing type is oil lubricated.

The use of spur gears in gear pumps will produce in the discharge pulsations having a frequency equivalent to the number of teeth on both gears multiplied by the speed of rotation. The amplitude of these disturbances is a function of tooth design. The pulsations can be reduced markedly by the use of rotors with helical teeth. This in turn introduces end thrust, which can be eliminated by the use of double helical or herringbone teeth.

Screw Pumps

A modification of the helical gear pump is the screw pump. Both gear and screw pumps are positive displacement pumps. The figure illustrates a two-rotor version in which the liquid is fed to either the center or the ends, depending upon the direction of rotation, and progresses axially in the cavities formed by the meshing threads or teeth. In three-rotor versions, the center rotor is the driving member while the other two are driven. The figure shows still another arrangement, in which a metal rotor of unique design rotates without clearance in an elastomeric stationary sleeve.

Screw pumps, because of multiple dams that reduce slip, are well adapted for producing higher pressure rises, for example, 6.895 MPa (1000 lbf/in2), especially when handling viscous liquids such as heavy oils. The all-metal pumps are generally subject to the same limitations on handling abrasive solids as conventional gear pumps. In addition, the wide bearing spans usually demand that the liquid have considerable lubricity to prevent metal-to-metal contact.

Among the liquids handled by rotary pumps are mineral oils, vegetable oils, animal oils, greases, glucose, viscose, molasses, paints, varnish, shellac, lacquers, alcohols, catsup, brine, mayonnaise, sizing, soap, tanning liquors, vinegar, and ink. Some screw-type units are specially designed for the gentle handling of large solids suspended in the liquid.

Fluid-Displacement Pumps

In addition to pumps that depend on the mechanical action of pistons, plungers, or impellers to move the liquid, other devices for this purpose employ displacement by a secondary fluid. This group includes air lifts and acid eggs.

The air lift is a device for raising liquid by means of compressed air. In the past it was widely used for pumping wells, but it has been less widely used since the development of efficient centrifugal pumps. It operates by introducing compressed air into the liquid near the bottom of the well. The air-and-liquid mixture, being lighter than liquid alone, rises in the well casing. The advantage of this system of pumping lies in the fact that there are no moving parts in the well. The pumping equipment is an air compressor, which can be located on the surface. A simplified sketch of an air lift for this purpose is shown in Figure. Ingersoll-Rand has developed empirical information on air-lift performance which is available upon request.