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Tuesday, October 28, 2008

Angle Valve, Diaphragm Valve

Angle Valves

These valves are similar to globe valves; the same bonnet, stem, and disk are used for both (Fig. Top). They combine an elbow fitting and a globe valve into one component with a substantial saving in pressure drop. Flanged angle valves are easier to remove and replace than flanged globe valves.

Diaphragm Valves

These valves are limited to pressures of approximately 50 lbf/in2 (Fig. Middle). The fabric-reinforced diaphragms may be made from natural rubber, from a synthetic rubber, or from natural or synthetic rubbers faced with Teflon* fluorocarbon resin.

The simple shape of the body makes lining it economical. Elastomers have shorter lives as diaphragms than as linings because of flexing but still provide satisfactory service. Plastic bodies, which have low moduli of elasticity compared with metals, are practical in diaphragm valves since alignment and distortion are minor problems.

These valves are excellent for fluids containing suspended solids and can be installed in any position. Models in which the dam is very low, reducing pressure drop to a negligible quantity and permitting complete drainage in horizontal lines, are available. However, drainage can be obtained with any model simply by installing it with the stem horizontal. The only maintenance required is replacement of the diaphragm, which can be done very quickly without removing the valve from the line.

Plug Cocks

These valves (Fig. Bottom) are limited to temperatures below 260°C (500°F) since differential expansion between the plug and the body results in seizure. The size and shape of the port divide these valves into different types. In order of increasing cost they are short venturi, reduced rectangular port; long venturi, reduced rectangular port; full rectangular port; and full round port.

In lever-sealed plug cocks, tapered plugs are used. The plugs are raised by turning one lever, rotated by another lever, and reseated by the first lever. Lubricated plug cocks may use straight or tapered plugs. The tapered plugs may be raised slightly, to reduce turning

effort, by injection of the lubricant, which also acts as a seal. Plastic is used in nonlubricated plug cocks as a body liner, a plug coating, or port seals in the body or on the plug.

In plug cocks other than lever-sealed plug cocks, the contact area between plug and body is large, and gearing is usually used in sizes 6 in and larger to minimize operating effort. There are several leversealed plug cocks incorporating mechanisms which convert the rotary motion of a handwheel into sequenced motion of the two levers.

For lubricated plug cocks, the lubricant must have limited viscosity change over the range of operating temperature, must have low solubility in the fluid handled, and must be applied regularly. There must be no chemical reaction between the lubricant and the fluid which would harden or soften the lubricant or contaminate the fluid. For these reasons, lubricated plug cocks are most often used when there are a large number handling the same or closely related fluids at approximately the same temperature. Lever-sealed plug cocks are used for throttling service. Because of the large contact area between plug and body, if a plug cock is operable, there is little likelihood of leakage when closed, and the handle position is a clearly visible indication of the valve position.